Masaya volcano

Masaya volcano in Nicaragua has been a source of vumo for centuries

Masaya is the case study of UNRESP.

The scale of the vumo problem near Masaya volcano is huge: the volcano’s annual SO2 emissions match those of the entire UK but are released from a point source. An estimated 50,000 people are at risk, with average SO2 gas concentrations exceeding safe limits across a wide area. There is a well-known vegetation kill-zone downwind of the volcano.

The problem will likely remain for the foreseeable future: descriptions of vumo date back as far as earliest written records (16th century)

Map of average sulphur dioxide air pollution (SO2) and material damage in towns and villages (•) near Masaya volcano. WHO human health guidelines of 20 μg.m-3 are severely exceeded in many places. Map adapted from van Manen 2014